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BACnet

BACnetBACnet (Building Automation and Control networks) is a standardized communication protocol for building automation (ISO 16484: Building automation and control systems – Part 5: Data communication protocol). It was developed at the end of the 1980s by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). Communication in the network is modeled on BACnet objects, which are exposed as server objects by a BACnet device. Other BACnet devices connect as clients to those BACnet server objects. The network integration is accomplished by vendor-specific configuration tools.

LOYTEC devices with a BACnet interface expose data via BACnet server objects (binary, analog, multi-state) and communicate through client mappings. Change-of-value (COV) events can trigger the transmission of values. The AST™ functions are available for BACnet scheduler, calendar, trend log, and notification class objects. Devices are connected to the BACnet network over BACnet MS/‌TP (twisted pair based on RS‑485) or BACnet/‌IP (100Base-T Ethernet). BACnet objects are created in the LOYTEC Configurator tool using EDE import, online network scan, or manual creation.

As a default, BACnet objects use the ASCII character encoding on the device. This applies to the properties object name, object description, active/inactive text, state text, etc. Most third-party tools are compatible with this setting. To support international character sets, LOYTEC devices can be switched to use the encodings ISO 8895-1 (good for most Western Europe) or UCS-2 (good for Unicode character sets used in Japan).

All LOYTEC products with the BACnet/‌IP interface can act as BACnet time masters. It is possible to use the BACnet services TimeSynchronization and UTCTimeSynchronization in order to send out time synchronization events. This happens after a power-on reset of the device, when the system time is changed, or periodically. The system time on IP-based LOYTEC devices can be synchronized via NTP (Network Time Protocol), which allows the LOYTEC device – as a BACnet time master – to synchronize all registered BACnet devices in the network to the NTP time.

LOYTEC BACnet routers and BACnet devices with an integrated router can also function as a BACnet MS/‌TP slave proxy. A slave proxy answers BACnet Who-Is broadcast requests sent to slave devices on the MS/‌TP bus on behalf of them with appropriate I-Am packets. This covers the shortcoming of BACnet slave devices, which by definition cannot initiate communication by themselves. Using this feature, it is possible to find MS/‌TP slave devices in a BACnet network scan, which would not be possible without the slave proxy. LOYTEC BACnet routers, BACnet devices with an integrated router and L-GATE Gateways also have a built-in BACnet broadcast management device (BBMD) for managing BACnet/‌IP Internetworks that span across IP routers. BACnet models without the router function can register as a foreign device (FD) with other BBMDs.

BACnet devices with the BACnet MS/‌TP interface provide an additional remote MS/‌TP protocol analyzer. BACnet MS/‌TP packets are captured and can either be transmitted online to a Wireshark analyzer (sniffer program for analyzing network protocols available free of charge) or stored offline as a capture file on the device. This file can be downloaded over the Web interface and opened later in Wireshark.

Other BACnet details such as the BACnet standardized device profile, the supported BIBBs (BACnet Interoperability Building Blocks) and the object properties are specified in the respective PICS (Protocol Implementation Conformance Statement) document. Apart from this, most LOYTEC devices are BTL-certified products that support the BACnet Building Controller (B-BC) profile (see also the related product descriptions).